Variation of the dielectric constant in alternating fields
We know that a dielectric becomes polarised in an electric field. Now imagine switching the direction of the field. The direction of the polarisation will also switch in order to align with the new field. This cannot occur instantaneously: some time is needed for the movement of charges or rotation of dipoles.
If the field is switched, there is a characteristic time that the orientational polarisation (or average dipole orientation) takes to adjust, called the relaxation time. Typical relaxation times are ~10-11 s. Therefore, if the electric field switches direction at a frequency higher than ~1011 Hz, the dipole orientation cannot ‘keep up’ with the alternating field, the polarisation direction is unable to remain aligned with the field, and this polarisation mechanism ceases to contribute to the polarisation of the dielectric.
In an alternating electric field both the ionic and the electronic polarisation mechanisms can be thought of as driven damped harmonic oscillators (like a mass on a spring), and the frequency dependence is governed by resonance phenomena. This leads to peaks in a plot of dielectric constant versus frequency, at the resonance frequencies of the ionic and electronic polarisation modes. A dip appears at frequencies just above each resonance peak, which is a general phenomenon of all damped resonance responses, corresponding to the response of the system being out of phase with the driving force (we shall not go into the mathematical proof of this here). In this case, in the areas of the dips, the polarisation lags behind the field. At higher frequencies the movement of charge cannot keep up with the alternating field, and the polarisation mechanism ceases to contribute to the polarisation of the dielectric.
As frequency increases, the material’s net polarisation drops as each polarisation mechanism ceases to contribute, and hence its dielectric constant drops. The animation below illustrates these effects.
At sufficiently high frequencies (above ~1015 Hz), none of the polarisation mechanisms are able to switch rapidly enough to remain in step with the field. The material no longer possesses the ability to polarise, and the dielectric constant drops to 1 – the same as that of a vacuum.
The resonances of the ionic and electronic polarization mechanisms are illustrated below.