Dissemination of IT for the Promotion of Materials Science (DoITPoMS)

DoITPoMS TLP Library

# TLP Library

Teaching and learning packages (TLPs) are self-contained, interactive resources, each focusing on one area of Materials Science.

TLPs containing HTML5 animations/simulations are labelled with the tag . We have found that often the HTML5 animations render better in Microsoft Edge, so if your favourite browser does not work very well with them, please try an alternative.

##### Currently showing 30 TLPs

Having the following tags:

• Crystallinity
• Electronic properties
• Manufacturing
• Metals

This TLP provides an introduction to additive manufacturing methods, their advantages and limitations, and how the properties of printed objects are affected by varying printing parameters.

##### Analysis of Deformation Processes

This TLP builds upon the introduction to yield criteria covered in the Stress analysis and Mohr's circle TLP and introduces a range of methods commonly used to study metal forming processes.

##### Introduction To Anisotropy

It is common in basic analysis to treat bulk materials as isotropic - their properties are independent of the direction in which they are measured. However the atomic scale structure can result in properties that vary with direction. This teaching and learning package (TLP) looks into typical examples of such anisotropy and gives a brief mathematical look into modelling the behaviour.

##### Atomic Scale Structure of Materials

This teaching and learning package provides an introduction to crystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous solids, and how the atomic-level structure has radical consequences for some of the properties of the material. It introduces the use of polarised light to examine the optical properties of materials, and shows how a variety of simple models can be used to visualise important features of the microstructure of materials.

##### Avoidance of Crystallization in Biological Systems

This teaching and learning package discusses the two main environmental threats leading to crystallization in plants and animals, and the ways in which organisms have adapted to avoid this crystallization. As part of this discussion, there is coverage of some of the theory of nucleation and crystallization.

##### Brillouin Zones

This teaching and learning package provides an introduction to Brillouin zones in two and three dimensions and is aimed at developing familiarity with Brillouin Zones. It will not cover any specific applications. Brillouin Zones are particularly useful in understanding the electronic and thermal properties of crystalline solids.

##### Brittle Fracture

What determines when a material will break, and whether failure will be catastrophic or more gradual. Cracking is controlled by the energy changes that occur - it is not the stress at the crack tip that is important..

##### Casting

This TLP introduces a number of important processes through which metallic items can be fabricated from molten metal. As well as detailing the practical aspects of these manufacturing processes, attention is given to the important parameters which determine the microstructure of the finished items.

##### Creep Deformation of Metals

Creep is a major concern, since it can cause materials to progressively deform, and possibly to fail, under applied stresses below their yield stress. This is particularly likely at elevated temperatures. In this package, the main mechanisms of creep are outlined and some analytical expressions presented that are used to represent its progression. Testing procedures are described, covering both simple uniaxial loading and more complex test geometries. It is shown how creep characteristics can be inferred from the outcome of such tests, requiring in some cases numerical (finite element) modelling of the process. Information is also presented about the design of highly creep-resistant materials.

##### Crystallinity in Polymers

An understanding of polymer crystallinity is important because the mechanical properties of crystalline polymers are different from those of amorphous polymers. Polymer crystals are much stiffer and stronger than amorphous regions of polymer.

##### Crystallographic Texture

This teaching and learning package (TLP) introduces the concept of texture in crystalline materials such as common metals and metallic alloys.

##### Introduction To Deformation Processes

This teaching and learning package covers the fundamentals of metal forming processes.

##### Dielectric Materials

This teaching and learning package will introduce you to the properties and uses of dielectric materials.

##### Electromigration

Electromigration is an ever-increasing problem as integrated circuits are pushed towards further miniaturization. The theory of the phenomenon is explained, including electromigration-induced failure and how it has been and can be minimized.

##### Ellingham Diagrams

The Ellingham diagram is a tool most often used in extraction metallurgy to find the conditions necessary for the reduction of the ores of important metals. This Teaching and Learning Package incorporates an interactive Ellingham diagram. This diagram can be used to quickly and simply find a range of thermodynamic data relating to many metallurgical reactions.

##### Examination of a Manufactured Article

This TLP provides an introduction to the deconstruction and investigation of the materials and processes used in an everyday item or article.

##### Ferroelectric Materials

Ferroelectrics have been used in real-world applications for a small number of decades, most notably for non-volatile data storage. For example, they have been used in a Sony Playstation and Japanese railway cards.

##### The Jominy End Quench Test

Discusses the aims, method and use of results of a test for the hardenability of steel.

##### Kinetics of Aqueous Corrosion

This teaching and learning package (TLP) introduces the mechanism of aqueous corrosion and the associated kinetics.

##### Liquid Crystals

This Teaching and Learning Package provides an introduction to liquid crystals, their physical properties and their modern-day applications.

##### Mechanical Testing of Metals

This teaching and learning package (TLP) introduces the basic mechanics involved in mechanical testing of metals, first outlining the meaning of deviatoric and hydrostatic stresses and strains, followed by definitions of true and nominal values and then covering the idea of constitutive laws that characterise the development of plastic deformation. The issues involved in carrying out conventional uniaxial (tensile and compressive) tests, and interpreting experimental outcomes, are then described. Finally, hardness testing is explained, followed by the development of a related technique involving indentation testing that allows full stress-strain curves to be obtained. All of the analyses are based on a continuum treatment of plastic deformation, with extensive numerical modelling, using the Finite Element Method (FEM).

##### Microstructural Examination

This teaching and learning package (TLP) looks at how what we see in micrographs relates to equilibrium phase diagrams and cooling routes for alloy systems.

##### Piezoelectric Materials

This teaching and learning package (TLP) provides an introduction to piezoelectric materials.

##### Powder processing

This teaching and learning package (TLP) provides an introduction to the dynamics of powder particles in fluid streams and relates this background to issues such as the time for which such particles remain suspended in air or water and the likelihood of them striking obstacles in their path. It also presents a description of the main routes by which (ceramic or metallic) powders are converted to solid objects.

##### Pyroelectric Materials

Pyroelectric materials are found in almost every home, in the form of intrusion detectors and other devices, and this TLP will consider how they work, and what the most common ones are made of.

##### Recycling of Metals

The next time you drain a canned beverage or take a journey in a car, you might like to think about what will happen to it when it reaches the end of its useful life. This teaching and learning package will look at metals recycling from a materials science viewpoint - not simply outlining the need for recycling, but explaining the complex scientific principles behind some aspects of the recycling process itself.

##### Introduction To Semiconductors

This teaching and learning package provides a very basic introduction to semiconductors. These materials are essential to the operation of solid state electronic devices.

##### Solidification of Alloys

This teaching and learning package (TLP) is an introduction to how solute affects the solidification of metallic alloys.

##### Stress Analysis and Mohr's Circle

This teaching and learning package provides an introduction to the theory of metal forming. It discusses how stress and strain can be presented as tensors, and ways of identifying the principal stresses. Suitable yield criteria to treat metals and non-metals are also presented.

##### Superconductivity

Electrons in pairs? Levitating trains? Superconductivity - the combination of lossless electrical conduction and the ability of a material to expel a magnetic field - is a property that excites interest in fundamental science whilst offering tantalising prospects for a range of applications. In this teaching and learning package (TLP), we trace the history of superconductivity, outline some fundamental properties of superconductors, and describe current and potential applications of materials with this unusual property.