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0 100 200 300 400 σ N (MPa) 0 0.1 0.2 ε N
copper_legend copper_legend

σVM (MPa)

εVM

Axis of
symmetry

Original
sample
surface

Plane of symmetry Plane of symmetry
 
Annealed
Cu
Work-hardened
Cu
σY (MPa) 15
475
0.47
K (MPa)
n (-)

Friction coefficient μ (-)