Dissemination of IT for the Promotion of Materials Science (DoITPoMS)



PZT, or Lead Zirconium Titanate, Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3, is the most widely used piezoelectric. It has the perovskite structure, with Zr and Ti ions randomly placed in the B sites in perovskite.

PZT perovskite structure

Its composition is varied by altering the value x. This greatly changes the properties, giving the phase diagram below.

Phase diagram

If the PZT is used at 50% Mol PbTiO3, then it is near the rhombohedral/tetragonal phase boundary. This allows it to form many different polarisation states, in the <100> and <111> directions. There are many possible orientations for dipole moments to form, giving easy poling, and making it a useful piezoelectric.