Dissemination of IT for the Promotion of Materials Science (DoITPoMS)


Going further


  • A. Mehta, Granular Physics, CUP, 2007.
  • A. Schofield, Disturbed Soil Properties and Geotechnical Design, Thomas Telford Ltd., London, 2005.
  • A. Schofield and C.P. Wroth, Critical State Soil Mechanics, McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead, 1968.
  • D.M. Wood, Soil Behaviour and Critical State Soil Mechanics, CUP, 1990.


Other resources

For those interested in going much deeper into the subject of granular flow, these research references should be useful:

R. Albert, I. Albert, D. Hornbaker, P. Schiffer and A. Barabási, ‘Maximum angle of stability in wet and dry spherical granular media’, Phys. Rev. E 56, R6271-R6274 (1997).

A. Barabási, R. Albert, and P. Schiffer, ‘The physics of sand castles: maximum angle of stability in wet and dry granular media’, Physica A 266, 366-371 (1999).

M.D. Bolton, ‘The strength and dilatancy of sands’, Géotechnique 36, 65-78 (1986).

H.W. Chandler and D.E. Macphee, ‘A model for the flow of cement pastes’, Cem. Conr. Res. 33, 265-270 (2003).

B.-P. Dai, J. Yang and C.-Y. Zhou, ‘Micromechanical origin of angle of repose in grnular materials’, Granular Matter 19: art. 24 (2017).

P.A. Arias García, R.O. Uñac, A.M. Vidales and A. Lizcano, ‘Critical parameters for measuring angles of stability in natural granular materials’, Physica A 390, 4095-4104 (2011).

T.C. Halsey and A.J. Levine, ‘How sandcastles fall’, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3141-3144 (1998).

B.C. Johnson, C.S. Campbell and H.J. Melosh, ‘The reduction of friction in long runout landslides as an emergent phenomenon’, J. Geophys. Res.: Earth Surf. 121, 881-889 (2016).

A. Khaldoun, E. Eiser, G.H. Wegdam and D. Bonn, ‘Liquefaction of quicksand under stress’, Nature 437, 635 (2005).

A. Mehta and G.C. Barker, ‘The dynamics of sand’, Rep. Prog. Phys. 57, 384-416 (1994).

C.N.P. Mackenzie, Traditional Timbering in Soft Ground Tunnelling: A Historical Review, British Tunnelling Society, 2014.

G.R. McDowell and M.D. Bolton, ‘On the micromechanics of crushable aggregates’, Géotechnique 48, 667-679 (1998).

G.R. McDowell, M.D. Bolton and D. Robertson, ‘The fractal crushing of granular materials’, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 44, 2079-2102 (1996).

S. Nowak, A. Samadan and A. Kudrolli, ‘Maximum angle of stability of a wet granular pile’, Nature Physics 1, 50-52 (2005).

D.A. Robinson and S.P. Friedman, ‘Observations of the effects of particle shape and particles size distribution on avalanching of granular media’, Physica A 311, 97-110 (2002).

C.M. Sands, A.R. Brown and H.W. Chandler, ‘The application of principles of soil mechanics to the modelling of pastes’, Granular Matter 13, 573-584 (2011).

Z.Y. Zhou, R.P. Zou, D. Pinson and A.B. Yu, ‘Angle of repose and stress distrbution of dandpiles formed with ellipsoidal particles’, Granular Matter 16, 695-709 (2014).